Some of the main features for a Specific Phobia in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are:
Marked fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation
Exposure to the phobic stimulus almost always provokes an immediate fear or anxiety response
The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the specific object or situation and to the sociocultural context.
The phobic situation(s) is avoided or else is endured with intense anxiety or distress.
Categories of specific phobias:
Animal type – (e.g., fear of spiders, insects, dogs)
Natural environment type – (e.g., fear of heights (acrophobia), storms, water)
Situational type – (e.g., airplanes, elevators, enclosed places).
Blood-injection-injury type – (e.g., needles, invasive medical procedures)
Other – (e.g., situations that may lead to choking or vomiting; in children, e.g., loud sounds or costumed characters)